Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, formerly known as Abyssinia or High Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

It is the second most populous country in Africa after Nigeria and before Egypt. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south.

Unique among African countries, Ethiopia was never colonized, maintaining its independence throughout the Colonization of Africa, except for a period of five years (1936-1941), when it was under Italian occupation. It is also the second oldest nation in the world to adopt Christianity as state religion after Armenia. In addition, Ethiopia was a member of the League of Nations, signed the Charter of the United Nations Declaration in 1942, founded the United Nation headquarters in Africa, was one of the 51 original members of the United Nations and is one of the founding members of the former OAU and current AU. Its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa

The name derives from the greek thiopia, from turn of thiops 'Ethiopian' which in Greek means burned face. However, Ethiopian sources claim that the name is ascribed to a legendary individual called Ityopp'is, an extrabiblical son of Cush, said to have founded the city of Axum.